Courses at PKU —LSE-PKU DOUBLE MASTERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY, TECHNOLOGY AND HEALTH

Author: | published date:2020-10-19

Eight core courses (about 16 credits) will be provided covered from the science of environment and health, technologies, research methods and Environmental policies;

Course arrangement is briefly summarized below, detail syllabus will be provided before the start of new semester.


Courses in the First Semester

 

 Environmental Pollution: Air, Water, and   Soil

环境污染:大气、水、土壤

Teaching Staff

LI Shao-meng 李少萌

Course   Description

Graduate students in the   studies of environmental economics and management need to have an in-depth   understanding of environmental pollution phenomena that can result from the   modern day society activities. Addressing this need, this course is intended   as a required course for the master-level graduate students enrolled in the   PKU-LSE joint program but is open to regular master-level graduate students   at PKU as an elective course. In this course, broad topics in major aspects   of environmental pollution, ranging from air, water, and soil pollution will   be presented to allow the students a comprehensive understanding of these   issues. The topics will cover acid deposition, smog including particulate   matter and ozone pollution, stratospheric ozone depletion, to greenhouse gas   emissions; water pollution from surface and ground water pollution to marine   pollution; soil pollution, from local to regional scale soil pollution   resulting from discharge of industrial waste into the soil, percolation of contaminated   water, rupture of underground storage tanks, excess application of   pesticides, herbicides or fertilizer, solid waste seepage. Students of this   course are expected to acquire a comprehensive knowledge of these   environmental pollution phenomena, including the types and sources of   pollutants, the interplay of pollutants among the different compartments of   the environment, and effects of pollution.

Core   Content

1.  Air pollution:   Types and sources of air pollutants, atmospheric chemical processes leading   to acid deposition and smog, impacts of primary and secondary air pollutants.

2.  Water pollution: surface water pollution, ground water pollution, marine   pollution; types and sources of pollutants; chemical and biological processes   of water pollutants; impacts of water pollutants.

3.  Soil pollution: Main causes of soil pollution; type and sources of soil   pollutants; distribution, transport, and fate of pollutants in soil; impacts   of soil pollution.

4.  Pollution transport between environmental compartments: Transport and   fate of pollutants in the three major environmental compartments.

5.  Detection and remediation of pollutants

Evaluation Details

1.  Essay on Air Pollution Topic 1: 20%

2.  Essay on Air Pollution Topic 2: 25%

3.  Essay on Water Pollution Topic 125%

4.   Essay on Soil Pollution Topic 120%

Readings

1.  Gurjar B , Molina L , Ojha C . Air Pollution:   Health and Environmental Impacts.[J]. Crc Press, 2010,   10.1201/EBK1439809624:249-274.

2.  Paton G I . Soil Pollution: From Monitoring to   Remediation. By A.Duarte, A.Cachada & T.Rocha‐Santos (eds). 2017.   Published byAcademic Press/Elsevier, paperback xvi + 296 pp. 82.60. eBook   99.12. ISBN 978‐0‐12‐849873‐6[J]. Soil Use and Management, 2018, 34(3).

3.  Perk M V D . Soil and water contamination: From   molecular to catchment scale[M]. Taylor & Francis, 2011.

 


 

Global   Environmental Health: Principles and Case Studies

全球环境健康:原理与案例

Teaching Staff

ZHANG Junfeng 张军峰, and/or ZHU Tong 朱彤

Course   Description

As many environmental problems   occur on a global scale but may have differential local impacts, both local   and global perspectives are important in understanding and addressing the   problems. The objective of this course is to engage students to learn and   think of global and local impacts of most important contemporary environmental   issues such as climate change, air pollution, water scarcity and pollution,   waste disposal, and exposure to chemicals found in consumer products, among   others. This course will include a series of live and video-taped lectures   that students can watch online at their own pace and their convenient time   within a defined time period. Live sessions will be arranged so the students   have a chance to meet in person with the instructor and their fellow   students. Students are required to interact via online ‘Forum’ or email with   each other and with the instructor and the TA. Office hours will be arranged   for students to ask questions in person. One-on-one discussions with the   instructor and group discussions will be scheduled. Furthermore, live   sessions will be arranged for students to present their term papers.

Core Content

1.    Environmental determinants of global health, and   methodological framework

2.    Exposure assessment: principles and methods

3.   Introduction to environmental epidemiology

4.    Water scarcity and pollution

5.    Introduction to environmental toxicology, case   studies in environmental toxicology

6.    Principles of climate change and health

7.    Climate and malaria risk in Amazon

8.    Valuation of clear air for air quality and   climate

9.    Principles of air pollution

10.  Case studies of air pollution interventions:

11.  Case studies in agriculture, food production,   and solid waste

12.  Chemicals in consumer products

13.  Integrative summary of the course in relation to   WHO SDGs

14.  Case studies on flame retardant chemicals

15.  Solid   and hazardous waste

Evaluation Details

1.  Homework: 30% (Late: -10%/day)

2.  Exam: 25%

3.  Term paper and presentation: 35%

4.   Class participation/discussion: 10%

Readings

1.   Howard Frumkin, Environmental Health: From   Global to Local, 3rd Edition, ISBN 978-1118984765.

2.  Cui X, Li F, Xiang J, Fang L, Chung MK, Day DB,   Mo J, Weschler CJ, Gong J, He L, Zhu D, Lu C, Han H, Zhang Y, Zhang JJ.   Cardiopulmonary effects of overnight indoor air filtration in healthy   nonsmoking adults: A double-blind randomized crossover study. Environment   International, 2018, 114:27-36.

3.  Haines AH, Ebi K.  The imperative for climate action to   protect health. New England Journal of Medicine, 2019, 380: 263-273.

4.   Lancet Commission on Pollution and Health,   Special (Supplementary) Report, October 2017.

5.   Li D, Suh S. Health risks of chemicals in   consumer products: A review. Environmental International, 2019, 123: 580-587.

6.   Rich DQ, Kipen HM, Huang W, Wang G, Wang Y, Zhu   P, Ohman- Strickland P, Hu M, Philipp C, Diehl SR, Lu SE, Tong J, Gong J,   Thomas D, Zhu T, Zhang J. Association between Changes in Air Pollution Levels   during the Beijing Olympics and Biomarkers of Inflammation and Thrombosis in   Healthy Young Adults.  JAMA (Journal of   American Medical Association). 307: 2068-2078, 2012.

7.   Samet, J.M., Zhang J. Climate   Change and Health. In: Routledge Handbook on Public Health in   Asia: Global Perspectives. Edited by S. Griffith, J.L.Tang , and E.K. Yeoh.   Routledge, Taylor and Francis Group, Oxon, UK. 2013.

8.    Smith KR, McCracken JP, Weber MW, et al. Effect   of reduction in household air pollution on childhood pneumonia in Guatemala   (RESPIRE): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2011;378(9804):1717-26.   doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60921-5.

 


 

Energy Utilization and Sustainable   Development

能源利用与可持续发展

Teaching Staff

CHEN Qi  陈琦

Course Description

Energy is the driven force of the development of global economy.   The use of energy shapes the society and changes the environment. China is   the world’s second largest economy, the world’s largest consumer of coal, the   second largest consumer of oil, and the world’s largest emitter of CO2.   Rapid economic developments in developing countries alter the global energy   structure and lead to great environmental challenges. This course is   structured for a scientific and technical understanding of energy sources,   energy system, energy techniques and assessment methods as well as related   environmental issues.

Core Content

  • Energy fundamentals, storage and transfer, modeling and curtailment.

  • Environmental Challenges Related to Coal and Oil.

  • Nature Gas Exploration and Exploitation.

  • Electricity as an Energy Sector.

  • Heat-Loss Control and Reuse.

Evaluation Details

Class   participation flipped classroom (60%) and final essay (40%)

Readings

1.  McElroy, Michael B. Energy and Climate. Oxford   University Press, 2016

2.  IEA Key World Energy Statistics (KWES),   available online

3.  IEA World Energy Outlook (WEO), available online

4.  BP Statistical Review of World Energy (SRWE),   available online

5.  EIA, International Energy Outlook (IEO), available online


Seminars   on China’s environment and development

中国环境与发展系列讲座与研讨

Teaching Staff

ZHANG Shiqiu 张世秋

Course Description

The   seminar series is designed to help the students get more insights and indepth   understanding to the major ecological and environmental challenges, promotion   of the eco-civilization, green transition and green development,   environmental & development strategy and plans, legislation and policies,   governance, etc. Guest lecturers will be invited from Peking University and   other universities, research institutes, government agencies. Field trip or   institute visit may also be considered.   

Core   Content

1.  Emerging issues and challenges for China’s environment and development.

2.  Eco-civilization: concept, theory and practice.

3.  China’s mid-long-term plans for addressing environmental and development   issues, climate change and SDGs.

4.  Shifting Lanes and Green transition: green development and carbon   neutrality, from High speed to high-quality development,

5.   Environmental policies (carbon trade, environmental tax, green finance;   ecologicals

Assignments (paper or other forms)

1.  Homework (essays and literature review reports)

2.  Final report (report and presentation)

Evaluation Details

1.   Homework (40%);

2.    Participation (20%);

3.    Final paper (40%)

Readings

1.   Liu, Jianguo, and Peter Raven. 2010. Chinas   Environmental Challenges and Implications for the World,   Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol 40, Issue 9-10,   pp. 823-851.

2.    Fergus Green and Nicholas Stern. 2014. An   Innovative and Sustainable Growth Path for China: A Critical Decade.   Available at http://www.lse.ac.uk/GranthamInstitute/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/An-Innovative-   and-Sustainable-Growth-Path-for-China-A-Critical-Decade1.pdf.

3.   Jin, Y., Andersson, H., Zhang, S. 2016. Air   Pollution Control Policies in China: A Retrospective and Prospects,   International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2016,   13(12): 1219-124. Available at http://www.mdpi.com/1660- 4601/13/12/1219.

4.    Alex Wang. 2012. Chinas   Environmental Tipping Point, Chapter 5 in   China in and beyond the Headlines, Timothy Weston, Lionel Jensen, eds. Rowman   and Littlefield Publishers.   http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2130452

5.   CCICED.2020. Global Climate Governance and   China's Role.   http://en.cciced.net/POLICY/rr/prr/2020/202009/P020200917108654275502.pdf

6.   CCICED.2020. Green Urbanization Strategy and   Pathways towards Regional Integrated Development:Accelerating Green   Urbanization in China Based on Eco-Civilization.   http://en.cciced.net/POLICY/rr/prr/2020/202009/P020200917029698959994.pdf

7.   CCICED. 2020. Issue Paper: Recovering Forward   http://en.cciced.net/POLICY/rr/Issuespaper/202008/P020200806170667928489.pdf

8.   CCICED. 2019. Issue Paper: The shift to High   Quality, Green Development.   http://www.cciced.net/cciceden/POLICY/rr/Issuespaper/201908/P020190830117600437205.pdf

9.   Oran R. Young, Dan Guttman, et al. 2015, Institutionalized   governance processes: comparing environmental problem solving in China and   the United States, Global Environmental Change, 31, pp. 16-173.

10.  Ye Qi, Nicholas Stern, Tong Wu, Jiaqi Lu &   Fergus Green. 2016. Chinas Post Coal   Growth, Nature Geoscience, 9: 564-566.

11.   Other Background Readings

12.   CCICED. 2019. Goals and Pathways for   Environmental Improvement by 2035.   http://en.cciced.net/POLICY/rr/prr/2019/201908/P020190830113636404374.pdf

13.   CCICED. 2018. Issue paper: Shocks, Innovation   and Ecological Civilization: A New Green Era for   China and for the World.   http://www.cciced.net/cciceden/cmwy/download/201810/P020181128116519687834.pdf

14.   Chi Chen etl. 2019. China and India lead in   greening of the world through land-use management. Nature Sust ainability |   VOL 2 | FEBRUARY 2019 | 122129 |   www.nature.com/natsustain

15.   IISD. 2016. Sustainability Impacts of Chinese   Outward Direct Investment: A review of the literature 2016.   http://www.iisd.org/sites/default/files/publications/sustainability-impacts-chinese-   outward-directinvestment-literature-review.pdf

16.   IISD 2015. Greening Chinas   Financial System.   https://www.iisd.org/publications/greeningchinas-financial-system

17.   K He, Y Wu, MP Walsh, S Zhang, I Mylvakanam et   al. 2016. A Review of Air Pollution Control in Beijing: 1998-2013.   https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284177759_A_Review_of_Air_Pollution_C   ontrol_in_Beijing_1998-2013

18.   NASA. 2019. Human Activity in China and India   Dominates the Greening of Earth.   https://www.nasa.gov/feature/ames/human-activity-in-china-and-india-dominates-the-greening-of-earth-nasa-study-shows

19.   Michael Conathan and Scott Moore.2015.   Developing a blue economy in China and in the USA  https://cdn.americanprogress.org/wp-   content/uploads/2015/05/ChinaBlueEcon-report-final.pdf

20.   Mol, Arthur P. J. 2006. Environment   and Modernity in Transitional China: Frontiers of Ecological Modernization,   Development and Change, Volume 37, Issue 1, pp. 29- 56.

21.  Pan Jiahua 2015 China Environmental Governing   and Ecological Civilization http://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-662-47429-7

22.   Scherr, S.J. and Bennett, M.T. 2011.Buyer,   Regulator, And EnablerThe Governments Role   in Ecosystem Services Markets: International Lessons Learned for Payments for   Ecological Services in The Peoples Republic of   China. http://www.greengrowthknowledge.org/sites/default/files/downloads/resource/adb-   buyer-regulatorenabler.pdf or http://www.forest-   trends.org/documents/files/doc_99.pdf

23.   Someno, Kenji, Breathing the Same Air: Outlook   for Environmental Change in China, February 5, 2014, The Tokyo Foundation,   http://www.tokyofoundation.org/en/articles/2014/breathing-same-air

24.   UNEP. 2019. A Review of 20 Years Air   Pollution Control in Beijing.   https://www.unenvironment.org/resources/report/review-20-years-air-pollution-control-beijing

25.   UNEP 2016. Green is Gold. The Strategy and   Actions of Chinas Ecological Civilization. UNEP.   http://web.unep.org/greeneconomy/sites/unep.org.greeneconomy/files/publications/gr   eenisgold_en_20160519.pdf

26.   WWF China. Chinas Role   in Global Trade. 2016. http://awsassets.wwfcn.panda.org/downloads/wwf_china_trade_report_en.pdf


 

Scientific Writing

科研论文写作

Teaching Staff

HU Yandi 胡焱弟

Course Description

The course is designed to introduce logical structure and language   features of scientific research papers. This course will combine lectures   with in class discussion on paper revision. Meanwhile, the preparation of   academic conference presentations will also be introduced in this course.

Core Content

  • Logical structure of scientific research papers.

  • Writing characteristics of scientific  research papers.

  • The preparation of academic conference  presentations

Evaluation Details

First   paper revision(30%)

Second   paper revision (30%)

Conference   presentation (40% )

Readings

Writing   Science: How to write papers that get cited and proposals that get funded, by   Josh Schimel, Oxford University Press,

 ISBN-10:    0199760241;          ISBN-13:   978-0199760244


 



Courses in the Second Semester


Environmental   Policy and Management

环境政策与管理

Teaching Staff

XU Jianhua 徐建华

Course Description

Environmental issues are negative   externalities of economic activities. They are manifestation of market   failure, calling for governmental intervention. When and how government   should step in is a question worthy of serious discussion. Centering on this   question, this course will (i) introduce public goods, market failure, and   the role of government, (ii) explain major types of policy instruments, and   (iii) demystify the process of policy implementation. Knowledge will be   introduced in a generic way, but China will be used as an example to reify   the abstract concepts and theories. Students are expected to grasp the   principles for designing public policies and acquire the skills to design   public policies after taking this course.

Core Content

1.  Private goods and public   goods: to discuss the concept of externality and the necessity of limiting   individual liberty , etc.

2.   Policy instrument: property   rights responses , taxes and subsidies, marketable permit, information-based   instrument, and mixed policies.

3.   Policy implementation: to introduce   the role of the government as the enforcer of rules and the associated issues,   etc.

Assignments (paper or other forms)

1.   Essays

2.   course project

Evaluation Details

1.   Homework: 50%

2.   Class participation: 20%

3.   Course project: 30%

Readings

1.  Bing Zhang, Hanxun Fei, Pan   He, Yuan Xu, Zhanfeng Dong & Oran R. Young (2016) The indecisive role of   the market in China’s SO2 and COD emissions trading, Environmental Politics,   25:5, 875-898.

2.  C. Qin, J. Xu, G.   Wong-Parodi, L. Xue (2018). Change in public concern and behavioral intention   toward air pollution Under the Dome. Risk Analysis, DOI: 10.1111/risa.13177

3.  Elinor Ostrom (1990).   Governing the Commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action.   Cambridge University Press.

4. James M. Buchanan (2000). The   Limits of Liberty: Between Anarchy and Leviathan. Liberty Fund: Indianapolis.

5.  Mancur   Olson, Jr. (1971).The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and   the Theory of Groups. Harvard University Press.

6.  T. H. Tietenberg (2006).   Emissions Trading: Principles and Practice (2nd edition). Resources   for the Future, Washington, DC, USA.


 

Environmental Health Research: Methods   and Application

环境健康研究: 方法与应用

Teaching Staff

GONGG Jicheng宫继成

Course Description

It is increasingly recognized that   climate change is intricately linked to sustainable development, not just in   terms of joint underlying drivers, but also with respect to synergistic   policy choices. Well-designed climate change mitigation policy can lead to   significant co-benefits for sustainable development in air pollution control,   water management, energy security enhancement and resource efficiency   improvement. To effectively inform decision making on these issues, whether   at the national or international level, science must take an integrated and   holistic perspective. The course aims to give an overview on sustainable   development goals with a focus on the nexus between climate change mitigation   and other selected goals such as air pollution control and human health   improvement, water use, economic growth, energy security and food security.   Furthermore, it introduces the widely used integrated assessment models   (IAMs) to analyze the nexus. Finally, the students will analyze the   co-benefit of climate change mitigation policies on water use, air pollution   control with the help of an integrated assessment framework.

Core Content

1.  Basic concepts and   development history of environmental health research

2.  Theoretical knowledge,   methods and applications of environmental epidemiology

3.   Data analysis basis for   environmental epidemiology research

Assignments (paper or other forms)

1.   Homework (Short essays and   multiple literature review reports)

2.   In-class midterm exam

3.    Final report (Design an   environmental health study, on-class presentation and submit a report)

Evaluation Details

1.   Homework30%

2.   Midterm exam20%

3.   Literature review report10%

4.    Final report40%

Readings

Climate Economics: Economic Analysis of Climate, Climate Change   and Climate Policy, Richard S.J. Tol, Edward Elgar Pub, Second Edition 2nd   Edition, 2019

 


 

Climate change mitigation and sustainable   development

气候变化减缓与可持续发展

Teaching Staff

DAI   Hancheng 戴瀚程

Course Description

It is increasingly recognized that climate change is intricately   linked to sustainable development, not just in terms of joint underlying   drivers, but also with respect to synergistic policy choices. Well-designed   climate change mitigation policy can lead to significant co-benefits for   sustainable development in air pollution control, water management, energy   security enhancement and resource efficiency improvement. To effectively   inform decision making on these issues, whether at the national or international   level, science must take an integrated and holistic perspective. The course   aims to give an overview on sustainable development goals with a focus on the   nexus between climate change mitigation and other selected goals such as air   pollution control and human health improvement, water use, economic growth,   energy security and food security. Furthermore, it introduces the widely used   integrated assessment models (IAMs) to analyze the nexus. Finally, the   students will analyze the co-benefit of climate change mitigation policies on   water use, air pollution control with the help of an integrated assessment   framework.

Assignments (paper or other forms)

1.   Homework (Short essays and   multiple literature review reports)

2.    In-class midterm exam

3.    Final report (Design an   environmental health study, on-class presentation and submit a report)

Evaluation Details

     1.  Weekly homework (30%);

     2.   Midterm presentation   (30%);

     3.   Final presentation   (40%: oral and report, 20%+20%).

Readings

1.  Climate Economics: Economic   Analysis of Climate, Climate Change and Climate Policy, Richard S.J. Tol,   Edward Elgar Pub, Second Edition 2nd Edition, 2019

2.   Xu, Z., et al., Impacts of   international trade on global sustainable development. Nature Sustainability,   2020.

3.    Sofiev, M., et al., Cleaner fuels for ships provide public   health benefits with climate tradeoffs. Nature Communications, 2018. 9.

4.    Haensel, M.C., et al., Climate economics support for the UN   climate targets. Nature Climate Change, 2020. 10(8): p. 781-+.

5.    Ou, Y., et al., Air pollution control strategies directly   limiting national health damages in the US. Nature Communications, 2020.   11(1).

6.     Kjellstrom, T., et al., Estimating population heat exposure and   impacts on working people in conjunction with climate change. International   Journal of Biometeorology, 2018. 62(3): p. 291-306.

7.     Miller, S.A. and F.C. Moore, Climate and health damages from   global concrete production. Nature Climate Change, 2020. 10(5): p. 439-+.

8.    Guo, Y., et al., Quantifying excess deaths related to heatwaves   under climate change scenarios: A multicountry time series modelling study.   Plos Medicine, 2018. 15(7).

9.    Hanssen, S.V., et al., The climate change mitigation potential   of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Nature Climate Change, 2020.

10.   Fuhrman, J., et al., Food-energy-water implications of negative   emissions technologies in a+1.5 degrees C future. Nature Climate Change,   2020. 10(10): p. 920-+.

11.   Tessum, C.W., et al., Inequity in consumption of goods and   services adds to racial-ethnic disparities in air pollution exposure.   Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of   America, 2019. 116(13): p. 6001-6006.

12.    Markandya, A., et al., Health co-benefits from air pollution and   mitigation costs of the Paris Agreement: a modelling study. Lancet Planetary   Health, 2018. 2(3): p. E126-E133.

13.     Fang, K., et al., The distribution and drivers of PM2.5 in a   rapidly urbanizing region: The Belt and Road Initiative in focus. Science of   the Total Environment, 2020. 716.


 

Coupled human-environment system:   interactions and integrated assessment

人地系统:交互影响与综合评估

Teaching Staff

QIN Yue 覃栎

Course Description

Across the globe, human society has been facing increasing   environmental challenges (e.g., air pollution and climate change) along with   growing population, urbanization, and increasing energy consumption. In this   course, we will introduce students to a scientific and engineering   perspective to understand and model different components of the environmental   system, as well as learn the corresponding mitigation strategies for tackling   environmental challenges. We will focus on topics such as: modeling the   population, basics of quantitative methods, understanding air pollution and   modeling air pollutant emissions, climate change and greenhouse gas   emissions, as well as fossil energy system and sustainable alternatives.

Core Content

1. To   introduce the concept of Anthropocene

2. To   introduce the major components of the environmental system

3. To   introduce the impacts of human society on the environmental system

4. To   introduce the feedbacks of the natural environment on the human society

Assignments (paper or other forms)

1.    Problem   sets: 3 in total

2.    Midterm   exam (close book)

3.     Midterm   group presentation: literature review on a environmental challenge of your  group’s interest, explain its historical evolvement, cutting-edge research   about it, major drivers and potential solutions.

4.     Final   individual presentation: Design and conduct an engineering analysis on an   environmental challenge of your selection. You have to demonstrate your   ability in project design, data collection, data analysis, and results   presentation.

Evaluation Details

1.    In-class participation: 15%

2.     Problem sets: 30%

3.     Midterm   group presentation: 25%

4.      Final   individual presentation: 30%

Readings

1.    S Pacala and R Socolow,   Stabilization wedges: Solving the climate problem for the next 50 years with   current technology Science 305, 968-972, 2004.

2.    Tong D. et al. Committed   emissions from existing energy infrastructure jeopardize 1.5 C climate   target. Nature 572 (7769), 373-377, 2020.

3.  Zhang Q. et al. Asian   emissions in 2006 for the NASA INTEX-B mission. Atmospheric Chemistry and   Physics 9 (14), 5131-5153

4.  Li M. et al. Anthropogenic   emission inventories in China: a review. National Science Review 4 (6),   834-866 (2017)

5.  Liu J. et al. Air Pollutant   Emissions from Chinese Households: A Major and Underappreciated Ambient   Pollution.  Proceedings of the National   Academy of Sciences (2016)

6.  Qin Y. et al., Air quality,   health, and climate implications of China’s synthetic natural gas   development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114 (19),   4887-4892 (2017)

7.   Qin Y. et al. Air   quality–carbon–water synergies and trade-offs in China’s natural gas   industry. Nature Sustainability 1 (9), 505-511 (2018)

8.   Vliet et al. Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to   climate change.  Nature Climate Change 2, 676-681 (2012)

9.    Wei Y.M. et al.  The climate change mitigation potential of bioenergy with carbon capture   and storage. Nature Climate Change 11, 112–118(2021)